- however： He studied hard; however, he didn’t perform well on the test. （他努力学习，然而在考试中表现不佳。） “however” 表示转折关系，连接两个相对矛盾的情况。
- therefore： She practiced regularly; therefore, her skills improved. （她定期练习，因此她的技能得到了提高。） “therefore” 表示因果关系，连接前后两个句子的结果。
- meanwhile： I was studying; meanwhile, my friend was watching TV. （我正在学习，与此同时，我的朋友在看电视。） “meanwhile” 表示同时发生的情况，连接两个平行的动作。
- furthermore： The project is well-planned; furthermore, it has a clear timeline. （这个项目计划得很好，而且还有清晰的时间表。） “furthermore” 表示递进关系，连接两个增加信息的句子。
- otherwise： You should study; otherwise, you won’t pass the exam. （你应该学习，否则你就通不过考试。） “otherwise” 表示否则的情况，连接条件和结果的句子。
- as a result： She didn’t prepare for the presentation; as a result, she struggled. （她没有为演讲做准备，结果她很吃力。） “as a result” 表示结果，连接前后两个句子的因果关系。
- in addition： The team won the match; in addition, they earned praise. （队伍赢得了比赛，另外，他们还受到了赞扬。） “in addition” 表示补充，连接前后两个句子的增加信息。
- on the other hand： Some students like science; on the other hand, others prefer literature. （有些学生喜欢科学，另一方面，其他人更喜欢文学。） “on the other hand” 表示对比，连接两个对立的观点。
I don’t want to go shopping. Besides, I haven’t got any money. 我不想去购物，再说，我也没有钱。
She won’t mind your being late —besides, it’s hardly your fault. 她不介意你迟到——况且这也不能说是你的错。
Some of the food crops failed. However, the cotton did quite well. 有些粮食作物长得不好，但棉花长得很不错。
His first response was to say no. Later, however, he changed his mind. 他最初的反应是不同意，但是后来他改变了主意。
It will take days by car, so let’s fly instead. 开车去要好几天呢，咱们还是坐飞机去吧。
My husband asked why I couldn’t just forget about dieting all the time and eat normally instead. 丈夫问我为什么就不能不整天想着节食，转而正经吃饭。
There was no news; nevertheless we went on hoping. 尽管毫无消息，我们仍抱着希望。
It’s a difficult race. Nevertheless, thousands of runners participate every year. 那是艰难的比赛，但每年仍有数千人赛跑者参加。
The flight will be announced soon. Meanwhile, please remain seated. 航班很快就要广播登机，在此期间请继续坐在座位上。
Carl’s starting college in September. Meanwhile, he’s travelling around Europe. 卡尔9月将开始大学生活，此间他将去环游欧洲。
Stress can be extremely damaging to your health. Exercise, meanwhile, can reduce its effects. 压力会严重损害你的健康，锻炼则可以减少这些影响。
He had always found his wife’s mother a bit annoying. The mother-daughter relationship, meanwhile, was close. 他总是觉得丈母娘有点烦人，然而她们母女之间的关系却非常亲密。
The firm did the work very well. Moreover, the cost was not too high. 这家公司做得十分出色，而且费用也不太高。
Bicycling is good exercise；moreover, it doesn’t pollute the air. 骑自行车是很好的运动，而且它不会污染空气。
You’ll have to go now, otherwise you’ll miss your bus. 你现在得走了，不然你会赶不上公共汽车了。
I’d better write it down, otherwise I’ll forget it. 我最好把它写下来，要不然我会忘记的。
We were unable to get funding and therefore had to abandon the project. 我们无法筹到资金，因此不得不放弃计划。
Muscle cells need lots of fuel and therefore burn lots of calories. 肌肉细胞需要很多能量，所以会燃烧大量卡路里。
No decision had been made, and thus the situation remained unclear. 由于没有作出决定，所以事态并不明朗。
Fewer pupils will attend the schools, and they will thus have fewer teachers. 上学的学生人数会减少，因此他们将会减少教师的数量。
(1) 表示“尽管如此”“无论如何”，含有despite something else 的意味。如：
This idea probably won’t work, but let’s try it anyway. 这个办法可能行不通，不过我们还是试试吧。
Her parents were opposed to her giving up her course, but she did it anyway. 她父母反对她放弃学业，但她还是没有听。
Of course I don’t mind taking you home—I’m going that way anyway. 我当然可以把你送回家——反正我也是顺路。
I don’t have time to go and anyway it’s too expensive. 我没有时间去，而且也太贵了。
Anyway, let’s leave that for the moment and look at this month’s profit figures. 好吧，让我们把那个问题放一放，我们来看看本月的利润额。
I went to college anyway, as a part-time student, paying my own way. 总之我上了大学，半工半读，自食其力。
Anyway, to cut a long story short, we had this argument and I haven’t seen him since. 总之，长话短说吧，我们发生了争执，我以后再也没有见到他。
It’s something I can’t tell you—not just now, anyway. 这事我不能告诉你，至少现在不行。
There seems to have been a technical problem—anyway, that’s what they told me. 好像出了个技术故障，至少他们是这么跟我说的。
1. I don’t like those shoes; _______, they’re too expensive.
A. besides B. however C. therefore D. instead
2. This is one possible solution to the problem. _______, there are others.
A. Nevertheless B. Besides C. Therefore D. However
3. There’s no coffee — would you like a cup of tea _______?
A. yet B. otherwise C. instead D. still
4. I thought those figures were correct. _______, I have recently heard they were not.
A. Nevertheless B. However C. Besides D. Instead
5. Geoff didn’t study law. _______, he decided to become an actor.
A. Besides B. Instead C. Nevertheless D. Still
6. The house was too expensive and too big. _______, I’d grown fond of our little rented house.
A. Moreover B. Otherwise C. However D. Besides
7. I knew a lot about the subject already, but her talk was interesting _______.
A. however B. nevertheless C. otherwise D. instead
8. The incomes of male professionals went up by almost 80%. _______, part-time women workers saw their earnings fall.
A. Besides B. Therefore C. Still D. Meanwhile
9. Phone home, _______ your parents will start to worry.
A. otherwise B. instead C. therefore D. however
10. The old system had its flaws, but _______ it was preferable to the new one.
A. instead B. otherwise C. nevertheless D. therefore
11. When it’s a nice day I walk to work, _______ I go by bus.
A. however B. however C. instead D. otherwise
12. The new boots are lighter and softer, and _______ more comfortable to wear.
A. instead B. otherwise C. therefore D. meantime
13. Most of the evidence was destroyed in the fire. _______ it would be almost impossible to prove him guilty.
A. Otherwise B. Thus C. Nevertheless D. Instead
14. Catherine wasn’t sure the book was the right one, but she bought it _______.
A. instead B. besides C. therefore D. anyway
15. Progress so far has been very good. We are, _______, confident that the work will be completed on time.
A. still B. therefore C. anyway D. besides
【参考答案】1—5 ADCBB 6—10 DBDAC 11—15 DCBDB